Dear MBA students, we welcome you all to the III Semester. We now draw your attention to an important practical activity to be carried out by you during this semester i.e., PROJECT WORK. The rationale behind this practical paper is to:

• Expose you to the various operational and practical aspects of business

• Train towards application of concepts learned in theory classes

• Help in developing written / communication skills required for a practical business executive


Considering the importance of Project Work for an MBA student  The Hindu college -MBA has proposed easy and flexible guidelines.

• All Project Works should have a Guide/Project supervisor, from your college/Organization in which you intend to carryout your Project Work.

 You Should select a Limited Compny for your project not within the area of ANU preferably.

You should obtain a permission letter from the company selcted  and submit it to your guide before March 31st of every year.

Prepare a synopsis in consultation with your guide. 

•. Unguided Projects or self guided projects will not be accepted. 

 • Project Work should be either a Field Survey study, Comprehensive Case study on the functioning of a business organization, Inter-organizational study, application of optimization techniques for business decisions, computer systems development for business operations 

 • Choose any organization which is convenient to your location, preferably a medium sized or a large enterprise and approach its HR manager / PRO for necessary permission 

• Make a thorough reading of your I semester paper titled “Research Methodology” and adopt the procedures explained in it. Description of Objectives of the work, Methodology, Sampling, Hypothesis, statistical data analysis and Report preparation should largely be explicit and adhere to the standard Project Reports 

 • Make as many visits as possible to the selected organization to gain a thorough understanding of the Problem of your study and collect information either through structured questionnaires / interview schedules. Collection of information and data should be done in consultation with your Project Guide.


Students are advised to carryout their Project Works only in their area of specialization. For example, the students of MBA (Finance) should take up their project works only in the functional area of Finance of a Corporate Enterprises, Banks or a Financial Institutions, Stock Market, NBFCs, Stock Broking / Forex Dealing firms, etc. 

Suggestive List of Topics for Project Work:

 1. Financial Performance of select Textile Units in Coimbatore

2. Working Capital Management of select Electronic Units of Guindy Industrial Estate

3. Risk and Return on Equities in Indian Securities Market

4. Performance Evaluation of select Mutual Funds in India

5. Financial Management in ABC company (Case study)

1. Survey on Consumer Choices of different brands of Two-wheelers in Chennai City.

2. Market Potential for Logistics Business in Hyderabad city

3. Brand Equity in select FMGC products in Mumbai City

4. Service Quality and Consumer satisfaction of Maruti Service Centers

5. A Case Study on Marketing Strategies of HLL in South India

6. Impulse Buying Behavior of Customers in Bangalore City

Human Resources Management

 1. Philosophy and Management of Human Resources in select large sized Indian Industries

2. Leadership styles – A comparison of Indian and Foreign Banks in Chennai City

3. Job satisfaction and Job involvement of employees in select Textile Mills in Tirupur

4. Status of Industrial Relations and Implementation of Labour Welfare Measures in select Coil Mines

5. HR Practices and Organizational Strategies in select IT companies in India

International Business:

1. WTO and India’s Exports: Integrated Strategy for New Millennium

2. A study on Cross Cultural Practices of select MNCs in India

3. FX Dealer room strategies : A study on select Banks/Forex Dealers in Mumbai City

4. Study on Operational and Practical dimensions of GDR and ADR issues of Indian Companies

5. Marketing Strategies of Large Multinational Automobile Unit in Hyderabad/Chennai City.

After collecting the necessary information from primary and secondary sources, substantial number of visits to select companies / organizations and administering questionnaire / Interview schedules, if any, the students are advised to discuss with their Project Guides for necessary directions on how to analyze the data. Based on the PROJECT GUIDE’S advice, carryout necessary tabulation of data, application of statistical tools, testing of hypotheses if any, and then prepare a plan of chapterization to prepare a PROJECT REPORT. Your compliance with the following format, may enrich the quality of the Report (Please refer to your Research Methodology course material for deeper details)

Chapter I: Background of the Problem under study

(Company Profile/ Industry Trends etc)

This Chapter may contain a brief background of the problem under study starting from Macro economy dimension to micro trends, contemporary developments in the given aspect under study. Brief survey on different studies/ Review of Literature on this theme may add richness to the work. For case studies, a brief profile of the company / industry should be given

Chapter II: Objectives and Methodology

This Chapter should contain the Objectives of the study, Methodology and Sample selection, Research Design, Period of the study, sources of data, tools of data collection, Statistical analysis, broad hypotheses put for testing, limitations, etc. Further, the technical terms used in the study, a priori relationships expected between the variables, Models intended to be developed / tested are to be specified in this chapter.

Chapter III and IV: Empirical Results / Data analysis & Discussion

This chapter should contain a logical presentation of the empirical results after completing the data analysis. This should contain neatly tabulated results, results of Hypotheses tested, graphs and figures, if any, along with necessary interpretation. A comparison of results with earlier studies may add novelty to the work. A detailed discussion on the basis of results of analysis should be given in this Chapter.

Chapter V: Summary and Conclusions:

This Chapter should focus on broad observations made by the study against each objective specified in the 2nd chapter. All observations should neatly be bulletined along with suitable captions. This chapter should also give a brief list of conclusions drawn by the study and then provide necessary suggestions for the policy makers / managers on future course of corrective action. 


 Every Project work should contain a list of books consulted for the topic studied, Research Reports, list of research articles and popular academic articles published in different journals be documented in standard pattern. It is also better to mention the websites referred for the secondary sources of materials.


Every Project Report should contain necessary annexure wherein the Proforma of Questionnaire / Interview Schedule should be enclosed in original. Further, the annual reports, research reports, used as supporting documents, if any, may also be enclosed here. The large database collected by the students may be enclosed (preferably as CD) as Annexure to the Research Report. Subject matter organized as above has to be neatly typed (with one and half line space) and submitted in hard bound / spiral bound form.Please type only one side of the page. Use only A4 size paper and the report may be with in the range of 100 -150 pages.


The Cover page of the Report must contain the Title of the Report, identity particulars of the student, name, Enrolment number, etc. A Proforma of the same is given in your Research methodology materials. Every Project Report should contain a declaration by the student stating that the said report has not formed part of any other title / diploma or associate ship and is a bonafide work carried out by candidate himself by adopting the necessary standard methodologies under the close supervision of Project Guide. Further, the Project Guide should also give a separate Bonafide Certificate on his/her letter head stating that the said work is original and the candidate has done under his/her supervision.


Every student has to contact his concerned project guide atleast 20 times in his III semester and complete his analysis of the project in consultation with his guide and submit 2 copies to the college before 31 October of every year. Spiral bound reports will not be accepted. The project report should necessarily include the company certificate for 2 months from the date of joining in the company.. Project reports without company certificate will not be considered for the evaluation.


Students are advised to follow the following Proforma while finalizing and Printing of their Project work reports. The College suggests the following sample pages:

• Title Sheet

• Certificate from the Guide

• Declaration by the Student

• Acknowledgements

• Executive Summary

• Table of Contents

• List of Tables

• Bibliography

• Appendices

Title Sheet:

The Cover Page of the Project Report as well as the first inner page of the Report should contain the details regarding the Main Title of the topic, Sub title (if any), the name of the company / industry where the work has been carried out (in case of Case study), branch of MBA programme the report submitted, Name of the Student, Enrolment /Registration Number, etc.

Model title page: :




(A Report Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Business Administration in Acharya Nagarjuna University)

Submitted by

Mr./ Ms……………………………

Enrolment No:………………….


Emblem Here(Hindu college-MBA)

The Hindu  College - MBA

Acharya Nagarjuna University,

Nagarjuna Nagar


Certificate from the Guide:

We suggest that  the candidates to approach either an academic guide or internal guide within the company to get the necessary guidance while preparing the Project Report. These guides are expected to certify that the Project work is a bonafide work and not copied from other works. Such certification increases the authenticity of the work done. It is preferable to get such certificate on the official letter head of the Guide. A sample of such certificate of the Guide is given below:


          This is to certify that the Project Work titled “ Consumer Brand Preferences with regardto Decorative Paints ( A Comparative study of Asian Paints and Berger Paints)” isa bonafide work of Mr./Ms………………………….. Enroll No:…………….. Carried out in partialfulfilment for the award of degree of MBA :……………………. (Branch) of Acharya Nagarjuna  University under my guidance. This project work is original and not submitted earlier for the award of any degree / diploma or associateship of any other University / Institution. Place:

Date:    Signature of the Guide

Guide’s Academic Qualifications,


Student’s Declaration:

In addition to the Guide’s certification, student should also give a declaration stating that the said work is original. The Proforma of such declaration is as follows:

Students’ Declaration

           I, Mr./Ms……………………….. hereby declare that the Project Work titled “Consumer Brand Preferences with regard to Decorative Paints (A comparative study of Asian Paints and Berger Paints)” is the original work done by me and submitted to the Acharya Nagarjuna University in partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of Master of Business Administration in……………………………..(Area of specialisation) is a record of original work done by me under the supervision of Dr / Mr. Sri……………………….of …………………………………… (Organization of the guide)



Signature of the Student


This is the place where the students can express thanks to different persons who helped them in carrying out their work.

Executive Summary:

It is preferable to have one page write up about the work, objectives, sample, broad observations made by the candidates in a summarized form. This executive summary should be comprehensive and able to reflect the entire work in a capsule form.

Table of Contents:

Table of contents gives an index of major chapters of the thesis; the introduction, different chapters with sub sections, bibliography and appendices along with their page numbers in the report. The titles of the chapters generally should provide a sequence of logical order of presentation made by the student. While first couple of chapters provides the setting of the problem, the later chapters should concentrate on the analysis carried out to examine the objectives of the study. The initial pages like Acknowledgements, List of tables, List of Figures, Bibliography and Appendices are numbered in lower case Roman letters and the Page numbers of all Chapters are given in regular numbers. It is customary to specify the Chapter numbers with Roman Capitals. A sample of table of contents is given below:

Table of Contents

 Acknowledgements      i

Executive Summary      ii

List of Tables    iii

List of Figures  iv



1.1 Measures of Economic Restructuring           3

1.2 Economic Growth during Liberalization Measures    5

1.3 Growth of Paints Industry during recent decade       7

1.4 Competition among brands and Marketing strategies           10

1.5 Consumers Preferences      12

1.6 Brief Review of Studies       15

1.7 Problem of Study    22

1.8 Objectives of the Study       23

1.9 Methodology and Sample   25

1.10 Period of the study            27

1.11 Sources of Data    28

1.12 Tools of Analysis 29

1.13 Scope and Significance     31

1.14 Chapter Plan        35


2.1 An overview           37

2.2 Problems and Prospects of the industry       40

2.3 Profile of the sample units    45

2.4 Major characteristic differences between Brands     49

2.5 Competition and Marketing strategies          52


3.1 Brand Preference of different categories of respondents       55

3.2 Demographic factors and Brand Preference59

3.3 Economic factors and Brand Loyalty           65

3.4. Product Characteristics and Brand Loyalty             70

3.5 Marketing Factors and Brand development             76

3.6 Social Factors and Brand Loyalty   82

3.7 Advertisement and Consumer Behaviour     89

3.8 Celebrity Endorsements and Quality            94

3.9 Price and Quality factors and Brand Preferences     99


4.1 Major observations             105

4.2 Hypothesis tested   115

4.3 Comparison of Results with Other studies    120

4.4 Major Policy issues             129

4.5 Significance of Observations           135


5.1 Research Problem 140

5.2 Methodology and Sample   142

5.3 Major Observations            143

5.4 Conclusions and Suggestions           145


APPENDICES            ii

Appendix A: Questionnaire / Scheduled            iii

Appendix B: Details of Secondary Data           


The main body of the report is the most important part of the Project Report. This body may be segmented into handful of Chapters arranged in a sequential order. The project Report generally consists of three main parts, viz., Introductory chapters, Analysis and Interpretation Chapters, Concluding chapters.

Introductory Chapters: First one or two chapters are called Introductory Chapters. The student should provide the setting of the problem of study in these chapters. While first chapter is to give brief background of the problem, review of different studies, objectives and methodology adopted, sample drawn, data sources, tools of analysis, hypothesis formulated for testing and broad limitations of the study, the second chapter concentrates on the brief profile of the sample units / respondents and likely influence of these characteristics on the problem under study.

The third and fourth chapters naturally have to concentrate on data analysis, interpretation of results, discussion based on observations made, results of hypothesis tested.

The last chapter i.e., summary and conclusions is to start with a brief summary of the problem understudy, sample and methodology, objectives and then summarize the observations made in earlier analysis chapter. A brief summary of discussion on the basis of results and major implications to be listed out. Then the report should go for making major suggestions for any improvement required in the policies and procedures followed by the enterprise under study.


The Bibliography refers to the reference material consulted by the student in connection with the Project Work. Published studies conducted by different authors, Text books dealing with the subject of study, Industry Reports, Business Magazines, Government Reports and Websites generally constitute the reference material. Students are expected to give the details of all sources referred for conducting the present study. The presentation of such reference material often referred as Bibliography. It should follow a logical arrangement in alphabetical order. Each reference should give the details regarding the author(s), the title of paper / book, details regarding its year of publication, place of publication, name of the publishers / name of the Journal in case of a research article, etc. Few examples are as follows:

Published Journal Articles: In case of Published Journal article, the logical order of citing a reference is, first authors name, title of the research paper, name of the journal (to be underlined), year of publication, volume number and issue number, year of publication and the pages of the said article in the given Journal. E.g.:

1. Anand, M ., Ajay Arora., “Economic Value Added: Business Performance Measure of Share Holder Value”, The Management Accountant, , Vol. 25, No: 4, May 1999, p.25

2. Banerjee, Ashok and Jain S C., “Financial Variables: Measuring Performance”, Chartered Accountant, Vol. LX., No: 2, Feb 1999, pp. 65-73

Published Research Books: In case of Published books the logical order is to start with author (s), year of publication, title of the book (to be underlined), name of the publisher, place of publication and page number refered. For example,

1. James R Gregory. (2004),“The Best of Branding: Best Practices in Corporate Branding”, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co Ltd, New Delhi, pp. 24-37

2. Sharma, DD.(2004), “Total Quality Management : Principles, Practice and Cases”, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi, pp. 312 – 325 (The students should take utmost care that the citation in the text must match with the citation in the bibliography)


Appendices refer to the annexure enclosed to the report. These enclosures help the reader of the report to refer in case of any clarity required on the type of instrument used by you in eliciting the information from the respondents, etc. Usually, the appendices contain a copy of the questionnaire administered in the study, published raw data collected and used in the study, etc. Some times, large tables and checklists of the study are generally given in appendix to provide greater continuity to the study report for a reader.


In the following pages, the The Hindu College-MBA wishes to provide you couple of studies in a summarized form to enable the students to get the first idea of a Project Work study. In order to help the students of different functional specialization, the topics of these studies cut across subjects like Marketing Management, Financial Management, Human Resource Management and International Business. However, these studies are only suggestive and students are not expected to take the same studies for their Project Work. All the studies below mentioned are published in different professional Journals and minor modifications are made to enable the students to understand them



The study of consumer brand preferences provides an insight into how consumers arrive at the purchase decisions and the variables which influence their decisions. Once the influencing factors have been identified, the marketers can manipulate them so that they can induce more consumers for purchase decision. There are twos categories of Paints, decorative and industrial. Decorative paints consist of paints like distempers, oil paints and plastic emulsions which are used for painting exteriors and interiors of buildings. Industrial paints are made using Red oxide, Zinc, Bitumen, Aluminium and so on and are widely used in coating the white goods, cars, steel, domestic appliances, etc.

Objectives of the Study:

The present study is principally aimed at analyzing the consumer brand preferences. More specifically the study is intended:

• To analyze the demographic profile of sample respondents and linkage between the demographic factors and purchase decisions

• To investigate in to the usage pattern of decorative paints by different socio economic classes of society

• To examine the brand awareness of decorative paints among the respondents

• To analyze the factors influencing the consumer brand preferences

• To offer suggestions for improving the levels of consumer satisfaction with regard to decorative paints in the light of findings of the study

Methodology :

In this study the following Methodology have been adopted in drawing the sample respondents. A sample of 150 newly built house owners of twin cities of Andhra Pradesh, i.e., Hyderabad and Secundrabad was selected for the study. Of the sample size 60 respondents belong to apartments and others have constructed individual houses during the last six months period. Study has been conducted during the year 2006. A questionnaire has been administered to elicit the brand preferences of customers.

Data Analysis:

Data has been analysed by using the simple statistical tools. All the respondents have been categorized into four categories i.e., Business Men, Private employees, Government Employees, Professionals. The responses are analysed across five popular brands of decorative paints, viz., Asian Paints, Berger Paints, Goodlas Nerolac, Jenson & Nicholson, Shalimar and others. Data has been analyzed by constructing cross tables and percentages have been calculated. Income wise brand preferences, occupation wise brand preferences, age-wise brand preferences are worked out by Cross Tabulation Method. Reasons for Brand Preferences have been arrived at across select reasons like availability, reasonable prices, high quality, durability, status symbol, advertising, etc.

Major Findings of study:

The following are the major observations made in the present study:

• Best brands convey a warranty of quality. Most respondents (37.8%) preferred Asian Paints, followed by Goodlas Nerolac (27.20%). All the others are found equally preferred

• While income wise classification of data does not show any serious differences in brand preferences by high income groups compared to other groups, the occupation wise classification indicated that the more business men (51%) are preferring Asian Paints

• Among major reasons considered by the respondents with regard to their brand preferences, it is observed that factors like Reasonable Prices (21%), High Quality (23.5%) and Durability (21.8%) have dominated the other factors like Availability of variety of shares (only 9.24%), advertising (8.40%), etc.


There is no single reason that is responsible for high brand preferences in Decorative Paints among the respondents. The demographic, socio-economic factors have not shown any major impact on this product. Only the Quality and Price seems to dominate the customer’s preferences in this regard.



Traditionally, most people used to depend on the GPF or gratuity received after retirement for constructing or buying a house. The emergence of housing finance, has enabled many to go constructing own houses during the last decade. While number of housing loan options are now available, the present study is an attempt to provide a comparative picture of these loan products using the opinions of respondents in respect of interest, repayment schedules, etc. Such a study not only useful to the institutions to identify the factors but also provide a picture to the potential borrowers.

Objectives of the Study:

The present study is primarily intended:

• To examine the opinions of customers regarding housing loan offered by the institutions in the state of Punjab

• To suggest suitable marketing strategies and product design to the institutions engaged in housing loan products


Study has considered five major institutions involved in providing housing loans, viz., HDFC, LIC Housing Finance, PNB Housing Finance, SBI housing Finance and HOUSEFED in four districts of Punjab. About 250 respondents have been selected and opinions have been elicited by administering a questionnaire. Data Analysis:

The opinions of the respondents has been analysed across different Institutions involved in the housing finance in the study area. Cross tables are arranged in terms of purpose of loan, tenure of loan, cost of loan, repayment schedule, awareness about interest rates, Time taken for processing the application, procedural formalities, security provided for getting the loan, difficulties faced and satisfaction level of customers. These opinions have been arranged and percentages have been calculated to make a comparative presentation.

Major Findings:

The study observes the following based on the opinions of the borrowers of housing loans from select financial institutions:

• While a majority of the respondents (56.4%) have taken the loan for house construction, about 1/4th of the respondents (28%) have drawn the loan for purchase of a ready flat / house. While HDFC loans are used for purchase of flat, the loans of LIC, SBI are mostly used only for construction of house by the respondents

• Tenure of the loan in most cases ranged between 7 to 10 years. Cost of loan from the point of processing charges is found highest in case of HDFC compared to LIC Housing finance schemes. The repayment schedule in case of all the loans are EMIs

• Awareness of Rate of Interest is high in case of HDFC Loan (78%), the borrowers of LIC Housing Finance are not that clear as to the effective cost of interest. While a few knew about the floating interest rates, majority of the borrowers have borrowed only on fixed interest terms

• The time taken for processing and sanctioning the loans seems to be around 7 days in HDFC compared to 21 days in case of LIC housing loan. The security requirements of other bank based housing schemes is large compared to only an insurance policy in case LIC housing loan, only 18 percent of customers have provided other guarantees for getting loan from HDFC in addition to the mortgaging of the land


Study observed that among different Housing Loan institutions, respondents had fewer difficulties with HDFC loans. However, majority opined that these housing loan organizations should not charge for processing, administration, conversion fees and other charges for pre payment penalty. Further, many opined that interest charges should be on daily reducing basis and should provide a flexibility to convert from fixed to floating or floating to fixed interest schedules.



Human Resources Development is one of the most important functions for organizational growth and development as well as for the benefit of individuals in an organization. Training and development play an important role in improving the skills related to job performance of employees. The present study is about the potential areas where training and development is required for executives and supervisory staff to achieve the organizational goals through proper motivation and guidance of their subordinates. It has often quoted that training improves the job knowledge and skills at all level of the organization, it helps in preparing guidelines for work, helps employees to adjust to changes in the organization and eliminate fear in attempting new tasks. Further, training also increases the job satisfaction and recognition of employees.

Objectives of the study:

The present study is intended:

• To study the technical and administrative skills required for executives and supervisors in a public sector undertaking

• To study the training needs required by executives and supervisors in various potential functional area of their jobs

• To suggest suitable methods to improve the effectiveness of training programmes


This study was carried out at BHEL, Trichy, a public sector undertaking. The study has considered a total sample of 120 employees comprising 46 executives (both middle and operational levels) and 74 supervisors. A questionnaire was administered to the respondents to identify the skills needed and training requirements of them. Delphi Technique and Brainstorming sessions are held to arrive at the consensus on different variables.

Data Analysis:

The data on the opinions from select sample executives and supervisors has been analysed by working out mean scores for 15 item questionnaire with seven point scale. While the skills and training needs constitute the framework, the study tried to explore into the areas of training required for the respondents. Ranks have been assigned based on the mean score value to indicate about their importance

 Major findings:

The study observes the following

A majority of the respondents express that the area of problem analysis and decision making as the prime areas of concern calling for immediate steps for focused training

• The data reveals that 45% of the respondents are looking for training in the areas of Planning, 49% of respondents requiring training in the areas of motivation and human behaviour, while 40% are looking for Leadership

• Motivational dimensions have drawn the attention of respondents. Vertical location of managerial position, job evaluation, performance appraisal, time management are some of the areas of major concern


The present study identified that training needs are continuous process. The study suggests various training methods like case studies, business games, brain storming, Delphi techniques, work designs, flexi time strategies. While training is likely to improve the skills and impart knowledge, the study looks for areas of effectiveness of decision making through training modules


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